Wallelign Mekonnen on the Question of Nationalities in Ethiopia

30 Aug

 Side Goodo

 August 24, 2008 

 The question of nationalities in Ethiopia has been the most contentious issue since Ethiopia took its current shape between the late 1880s and the early 1900s. The northern part of the present day Ethiopia, inhabited by the majority Abyssinians and the minority Kushitic Agews existed for over 2 Millennia in the name of the Abyssinian Kingdom with remarkable civilizations such as Axum, Lalibela and Gonder. However, Ethiopia as we know it today is the result of the internal expansion by King Minelik II of Shoa during the late 1880s until the early 1900s.

The majority (70%) of the current Ethiopian population, which lives in the southern, western and eastern regions of the country became part of the present day Ethiopia only during this period of internal expansion. The majority Kushitic peoples such as Sidama, Oromo, Afar, Ogaden, etc and the Omotic peoples such as Wolayita, Gamo, Gofa, Dawuro, Konta, etc and the Nilotic peoples living in the border between Ethiopia and the Sudan all became part of the present day Ethiopia between the 1880s and early 1900s. Historical evidences suggest that the rivalry between the two colonial powers, Britain and France in the horn of Africa, during the Scramble for Africa, facilitated the rapid Abyssinian expansion towards the south, the east and the west during this period. The two colonial powers provided King Minelik II ample rifles and other war materials that other ethnic groups living in the interior lacked. Therefore the King was able to easily subdue these hitherto independent African Kushitic, Omotic and Nilotic states with in a relatively short period of time.

Although these peoples were annexed over a century ago, due to lack of sustainable economic development and industrialization as well as limited urbanization, 85 % of them still live off subsistence agriculture in rural areas. The peoples of the South, the East and the West have therefore fully preserved their unique cultures, languages, histories and economic systems until today. Due to the failure of nation building arising primarily from failed economic development and successive dictatorial political systems, the country remained an amalgamation of nations and nationalities who constantly resented being part of a failed state.

It is based on this reality that Ethiopians from the South, the East and the West often voice concerns about the issues of nations and nationalities in the past and current Ethiopian politics. This is often misunderstood by their Abyssinian compatriots who unwittingly or intentionally refuse to accept the diversity of the country. This is in contrast to the spirit of the 1960s Ethiopian student movement which fully recognized the diversity of the peoples living in the country and their brutal and inhuman oppression and exploitation by the Abyssinian political elites. The most eloquent analysis of the issues of nations and nationalities in Ethiopia was provided by the late Wallelign Mekonnen, who was the most progressive Abyssinian in the history of the country, and one of the leaders of the student movements in Haile Selassie I University (the Current Addis Ababa University) in the late 1960s. Given the internal and international political developments during that time, his article was unsurpassed by its intellectual rigor and ability to portray the reality on the ground in the country. It was an epic essay.

However, I would like to warn readers that I do not endorse the ideology of the writer of the article. Wallelign´s analysis of the question of nationalities in Ethiopia was based on the socialist premises. His thoughts were influenced both by the contemporary global political trends and the domestic archaic political system of the feudal monarchy. Unfortunately, Wallelign did not have an opportunity to live and witness the down fall of the brutal Ethiopian feudal monarchy in 1974 and the brutal global socialism in 1991. I believe that if he had a chance, he would have radically altered the premises of his analysis. Our basic objective in publishing Wallelign´s article is only to reemphasize the fact that the question of nations and nationalities in Ethiopia of the 1960s is equally relevant and burning in Ethiopia of today. This is not the negation of the current tendencies for African and global unity. Africa can not be free and united if it does not respect the rights of the 2000 nationalities and peoples living in the continent.


 By Walleligne Mekonnen

Arts IV, Haile Sellassie I University  

Nov. 17, 1969  

The main purpose of this article is to provoke discussions on the “sacred”, yet very important issue of this country-the Question of Nationalities. The article as it was prepared for a special occasion (where detailed analysis was due time and other inconveniences impossible) suffers from generalizations and inadequate analysis. But I still feel it is not mediocre for a beginning. I expect my readers to avoid the temptation of snatching phrases out of their context and capitalizing on them. Instead every point raised here should be examined in the light of the whole analysis. We have reached a new stage in the development of the student movement, a level where Socialism as a student ideology has been taken for granted, and reaction with all its window dressing is on the defensive. The contradictory forces are no more revolution versus reform, but correct scientific Socialism versus perversion and fadism. The Socialist forces in the student movement till now have found it very risky and inconvenient to bring into the open certain fundamental questions because of their fear of being misunderstood. One of the delicate issues which has not yet been resolved up to now is the Question of Nationalities-some people call it ridiculously tribalism-but I prefer to call it nationalism. Panel discussions, articles in STRUGGLE and occasional speakers, clandestine leaflets and even tete-a-tete groups have not really delved into it seriously. Of course there was indeed the fear that it may alienate certain segments of the student population and as well the fear that the government may take advantage of an honest discussion to discredit the revolutionary student movement. Starting from last year, a small minority began to discuss this delicate issue for the most part in secluded places. Discussions, even private, leak out and because they were not brought into the open they normally led to backbiting, misunderstanding and grossly exaggerated rumours. I think students are mature enough to face reality even if they are very sensitive. And the only solution to this degeneration, as witnessed from some perverted leaflets running amock [amok] these two weeks, is open discussion.

What are the Ethiopian people composed of? I stress on the word peoples because sociologically speaking at this stage Ethiopia is not really one nation. It is made up of a dozen nationalities with their own languages, ways of dressing, history, social organization and territorial entity. And what else is a nation? It is not made of a people with a particular tongue, particular ways of dressing, particular history, particular social and economic organization? Then may I conclude that in Ethiopia there is the Oromo Nation, the Tigrai Nation, the Amhara Nation, the Gurage Nation, the Sidama Nation, the Wellamo [Wolayta] Nation, the Adere [Harari] Nation, and however much you may not like it the Somali Nation. This is the true picture of Ethiopia. There is of course the fake Ethiopian Nationalism advanced by the ruling class and unwillingly accepted and even propagated by innocent fellow travellers. What is this fake Nationalism? Is it not simply Amhara and to a certain extent Amhara-Tigre supremacy? Ask anybody what Ethiopian culture is? Ask anybody what Ethiopian language is? Ask anybody what Ethiopian music is? Ask anybody what the “national dress” is? It is either Amhara or Amhara-Tigre!! To be a “genuine Ethiopian” one has to speak Amharic, to listen to Amharic music, to accept the Amhara-Tigre religion, Orthodox Christianity and to wear the Amhara-Tigre Shamma in international conferences. In some cases to be an “Ethiopian”, you will even have to change your name. In short to be an Ethiopian, you will have to wear an Amhara mask (to use Fanon’s expression). Start asserting your national identity and you are automatically a tribalist, that is if you are not blessed to be born an Amhara. According to the constitution you will need Amharic to go to school, to get a job, to read books (however few) and even to listen to the news on Radio “Ethiopia” unless you are a Somali or an Eritrean in Asmara for obvious reasons. To anybody who has got a nodding acquaintenance with Marxism, culture is nothing more than the super-structure of an economic basis. So cultural domination always presupposes economic subjugation. A clear example of economic subjugation would be the Amhara and to a certain extent Tigrai Neftegna system in the South and the Amhara-Tigre Coalition in the urban areas. The usual pseudo-refutation of this analysis is the reference to the large Amhara andd Tigrai masses wallowing in poverty in the countryside. For that matter during the heydays of British imperialism a large mass of British Workers had to live under inhuman conditions. 

Another popular counter argument is that there are two or three ministers of non-amhara-Tigre Nationality in the Cabinet, one or two generals in the army, one or two governors and a dozen balabats in the countryside. But out and out imperialists like the British used to rule their colonies mainly by enlisting the support of tribal chiefs, who were much more rich than the average citizen of the British Metropolis. The fact that (Houphet) Boigne and Senghor were members of the French National Assembly and the fact that they were even ministers did not reduce an iota of Senegalese and Ivory Coast [Ivoirians] loss of political independence. Of course the economic and cultural subjugation by the Amharas and their junior partners the Tigres is a historical accident. Amharas are not dominant because of inherent imperialist tendencies. The Oromos could have done it, the Wellamos [Wolaytas] could have done it and history proves they tried to do so. But that is not an excuse for the perpetuation of this situation. The immediate question is we must declare a stop to it. And we must build a genuine national- state. And what is this genuine national-state? It is a state in which all nationalities participate equally in state affairs, it is a state where every nationality is given equal opportunity to preserve and develop its language, its music and its history. It is a state where Amharas, Tigres, Oromos, Aderes [Harari], Somalis, Wollamos [Wolaytas], Gurages, etc. are treated equally. It is a state where no nation dominates another nation be it economically or culturally. And how do we achieve this genuine democratic and egalitarian state? Can we do it through military? No!! A military coup is nothing more but a change of personalities. It may be a bit more liberal than the existing regime but it can never resolve the contradiction between either classes or nationalities. The Neway brothers and Tadesse Birus could not have done it. Talking about Mengistu and Tadesse, one cannot fail to remember the reaction that the Mengistus coup though a family one and at that by a sector of Shoa Amharas (with few exceptions, of course among the Workeneh) was very popular just because it was staged by “Ethiopians”-Amharas. With Tadesse, it was automatically a tribalist uprising. Why? Tadesse an Oromo cannot stage a nationalist coup but Oromo Supremacist. I am not equivocal in condemning coups, but the Tadesse coup had at least one significant quality and a very important one too. It gave our Oromo Brothers and Sisters self-respect. And self-respect is an important pre-requisite for any mass-based revolution. Even the so-called revolutionaries who scoffed at the coup just like the mass of the student body, could not comprehend this quality. You can clearly see in this instance the power of the Amhara-Tigre supremacist [supremacist] feelings. They clearly proved that they were nothing more than the products of government propaganda on this question. 

Can the Eritrean Liberation Front and the Bale armed struggle achieve our goal? Not with their present aims and set-up. Both these movements are exclusive in character, led by the local Bourgeoisie in the first instance and the local feudal lords in the second. They do not have international outlook, which is essential for our goal. They are perfectly right in declaring that there is national oppression. We do not quarrel with them on this score. But their intention is to stop there. They do not try to expand their struggles to the other nationalities. They do not attempt to make a broad-based assault on the foundations of the existing regime. They deliberately try to forget the connection of their local ruling classes with the national oppression. In short these movements are not led by peasants and workers. Therefore, they are not Socialists; it would only be a change of masters for the masses. But for the Socialists the welfare of the masses comes first. The same can be said for the Gojjam uprising. But I would like to take this opportunity once again to show how much Amhara supremacism [supremacism] is taken for granted in this Campus. To applaud the ELF is a sin. If anything favorable is written out, it is automatically refuted by both USUAA and NUEUS. But the Gojjam affair was different. Support for it was practically a show of identity to the so-called revolutionaries. Mind you, I am just saying that these movements are not lasting solutions for our goal-the set-up of a genuine Nationalist Socialist State. I am all for them, the ELF, the Bale movements, the Gojjam uprising, to the extent that they have challenged and weakened the existing regime, and have created areas of discontent to be harnessed later on by a genuine Socialist revolution. One thing again is certain. I do not oppose these movements just because they are secessionists. There is nothing wrong with secessionism as such. For that matter secession is much better than nationally oppressive government. I quote Lenin, “…People resort to secession only when national oppression and national antagonisms make joint life absolutely intolerable and hinder any and all economic intercourse. In that case the interests of the freedom of the class struggle will be best served by Secession. I would also like to quote the resolution on the question of nationalities from the London International Socialist Congress of 1896 attended, supported and adopted by the Bolsheviks who brought about the October revolution, “This Congress declares that it stands for the full right of all nations to self-determination and expresses its sympathy for the workers and peasants of every country now suffering under the yoke of military, national or other absolutism.”  

 As long as secession is led by the peasants and workers and believes in its internationalist obligation, it is not only to be supported but also militarily assisted. It is pure backwardness and selfishness to ask a people to be partners in being exploited till you can catch up. We should never dwell on the subject of secession, but whether it is progressive or reactionary. A Socialist Eritrea and Bale would give a great impetus to the revolution in the country and could form an egalitarian and democratic basis for re-unification. To come back to our central question: How can we form a genuine egalitarian national-state? It is clear that we can achieve this goal only through violence, through revolutionary armed struggle. But we must always guard ourselves against the pseudo-nationalist propaganda of the regime. The revolution can start anywhere. It can even be secessionist to begin with, as long as led by the progressive forces-the peasants and the workers, and has the final aim the liberation of the Ethiopian Mass with due consideration to the economic and cultural independence of all the nationalities. It is the duty of every revolutionary to question whether a movement is Socialist or reactionary not whether a movement is secessionist or not. In the long run Socialism is internationalism and a Socialist movement will never remain secessionist for good. To quote Lenin again, “From their daily experience the masses know perfectly well the value of geographical and economic ties and the advantages of a big market and a big state.” From this point of view of the struggle as well, a regime like ours harassed from corners is bound to collapse in a relatively short period of time. But when the degree of consciousness of the various nationalities is at different levels, it is not only the right but the duty of the most conscious nationality to first liberate itself and then assist others in the struggle for total liberation. Is that not true of Korea? We do support this movement, don’t we? Then, what is this talk of tribalism, secessionism, etc…..?


9 Responses to “Wallelign Mekonnen on the Question of Nationalities in Ethiopia”

  1. gamofront September 14, 2012 at 4:09 am #

    Gamo Democratic Liberation Front (GDLP),
    April 22/1999
    The recent voice of Gamo people from Southern Ethiopia
    Our ultimate Goal is to establish strong Gamo Government, and then Ethiopians will be foreigners to Gamo country.
    Gamo Democratic Liberation Front (GDLP) was founded on April 22/1999 at Washington DC aimed to liberate the poor Gamo Peaple from the harsh, systematic and torching oppression of EPRDF and the sleeping and unfair Southern Ethiopian state administration. For the last many decades Minilik, Hailessilasse and Derg governments did nothing for Gamo people and the current EPRDF has also done insignificant for the last 21 years. It is obvious that EPRDF policy advocates the right to self-governance. But this is practically false in Southern nations, nationalities and people regional State particularly for the Gamo people. In southern Ethiopia the only Gamo people are under tight prison that not to administer theme-selves.
    Minilik, Hailessilasse, Derg and EPRDF are the four successive Northern Ethiopia biased political governors over southern Ethiopia for the last 120 and above years, dismantled the Gamo democratic governance, cultural heritages, and all socio-economic situation of this region and replaced their dictator and brutal institution to enable them systematically govern forever. Their children’s are well-educated, rich, and live in America and Europe by the expense of these poor southern Ethiopians, particularly the Gamo who left many fold behind from the south Ethiopia tribes. So that, EPRDF have been playing bad elementary democracy among the poor Gamo people for the last 21 years and so on.
    Due to this fact, today the Gamo area do not have sufficient and qualified political representatives in the local, regional government, parliament and key National Government positions. For Gamo professionals and labor workers it is not allowed to be hired in Arbaminch University by any relevant qualification to work there. Usually, educated and committed Gamos are systematically neglected from any social, economic and political positions deliberately with no enough reasons, even not allowed to be further educated in abroad and in their home country, not allowed to learn by their lovely mother tongs language of Gamogna, not yet allowed to exercise their culture freely in front of national and international levels, not allowed to invest in their home country at all, etc… The impact of these and other similar invisible EPRDF fake caused a negative impact about a lot. But to mention some of the shocking evidences are as follows: – have no road networking for example the road from Arbaminch to chencha-humbo, the road from morka to wacha-zada-gircha. Recently, DMC allowed to re-construct the road from Humbo to Arbaminch stayed working for five years long and yet no progress in terms of quality, speed, and even unable to have sufficient drainage design. Moreover; some big districts have no road network like kucha, kamba, Arbaminch and Bonke. Thus, it is impossible to address the development need and yet remained ignored. The newly re-constructing asphalt by DMC is crossing far from the center of Gamo people and not discussed with the local Gamo people by which places the road should pass and connect for the best benefit of poor Gamo people.
    The other thing still it has been unforgettable and questioning by Gamo people is why forcefully stopped the road construction from Chencha to boreda-humbo, Arbaminch-zigiti-kacha-balta, boreda to daana, selamber to woide- boola-chosho to chaba, sikole to selamber, chencha to zigiti bakole, birbir town to dega-birbir, lante to dega-ummo-bilialashaye-chencha, lante-dega-donne-chencha, kemba to ottolo-maze-wacha, kemba to gerda-marta-male, geresse to bonke–kacha, Doko to chencha-woiza-wacha, anduro to wacha, selamber to choita-zada, Arbaminch to Amaro-Burji-Gedio, Arbaminch to Gumayide, etc. These were deliberately done by EPRDF to left the Gamo people under extreme poverty, disconnected each other, rest of the other world and put them in to under long geographical prisoner.
    The Gamo, Amaro, Gedio and Sidamo people have been positive economic, social and political ties before 25 years ago through water transport on Lake Abaya and abruptly disconnected without tangible notification after the EPRDF regime has come to power. Soon after, the big motor sheep /boat using as a public transport stolen and moved to Lake Tana from Lake Abaya without any reason by EPRDF party. Hence, the Gamo people still locked not to be linked with their ancient intimate brothers and families of Amaro, Gedio and Sidamo.
    Nevertheless, many times road construction and water transport services requested to puppet local, regional sleeping watcheye dog and nepotism centered state of SNNPR so as to be connected among Gamo, Amaro, Gedio and Sidamo, consciously, knocked out by current political orchestra of EPRDF in favor of unknown rent seekers. This is because, first the road is strategically significant in terms of social, political, and economic benefit for the marginalized Gamo, secondly, it has shortest distance and able to create a diverse relation among various similar tribes of Amaro, Gedio and Sidamo. Though, there were no roads networking among Gammo- Amaro-Gedio-Sidamo still the people have marketing by travelling on foot and by draft/animal power of the long distance.
    The fertile and irrigated farm land of Gamo area is systematically transferred to Amhara and wolayita people by means of a free gift to those war leaders of Menilik, Hailessiasse, latter by derge in the form of re-settlement program and producer cooperative and finally EPRDF re-distributed officially without considering all the native Gamo people. Recently, the EPRDF illitrally certified the ownership right to those non-Gamo people of their home land while many of Gamo people suffering and migrated in to Addis Ababa & other parts of Ethiopia in search of food. EPRDF was made a critical mistake to evacuate/relinquish the poor and innocent Gamo people from his own mother farm land forcefully in favor of wolayita who originally came in to the Gamo farm land area for the sake of daily laborer, collection of coffee, and cotton during hailesillasse Government. Then after, during the Derg Regime, Malba and Wolba socialist cooperative system confiscated all the farm lands of Gamo people located at western side of Lake Abaya and Chamo. The irrigated and suitable farm lands of Gamo directly awarded to cultivate Wolaita daily laborers which are traditionally, psychologically and linguistically far from Gamo tribe and then more than 350,000 people of Gamo left to die due to lack of basic needs /food, shelter, clothe, health, democracy, and humanity / and the rest 240,000 people migrated in search of food in every corner of the country.
    Dunguza is the only cultural clothes of Gamo People in Ethiopia, in the world. It is well produced by Gamo hand crafters of Dorze, Doko, Ocholo and Qogota and or Dere-Chencha(Ezo area, Qogona-Lisha, Shochora, Selamber area, Choita, Fango, Zozo area, Setena-Borche, Boyena-Tobe, Sulla area, Gema, Zardo-Doyina-Damuze, Wogada, Tutusha, Umo, Bilala-Shaye, Donne, Fura, Paragossa, Birbira, Manana, Layotirga, Zalla-Gutisha…), Dita, Daramalo, and Boroda community which are located in Chencha, Dita, Daramalo, and Boreda districts in Gamo area. This is the Global reality but wolyaita elites officially declared that Gamo-Dunguza cultural clothe is as if it is wolayitans traditional cloths and EPRDF supported it to be stolen, actually both of them are known in Ethiopia as a terrorist, brutal and thieves.
    The Gamo people are known internationally by its hand crafts technology, as of textile industrialist for more than a century and able to producer suitable traditional clothes like various Artful-Tibebe clothes, Lelashe-Buluko, Gabi, Kuta, Dunguza, Netela, Kemis, and others. For more than 100 years ago after the establishment of modern Government in Ethiopia the Gamo people had been produced clothes for all Ethiopians and yet have been continued in producing. Moreover, during the Minilik regime Gamo people produces even military clothes for Minilik solders. Various research results indicates that the Gamo Traditional cloth production able to saved the countries textile import by the last 120 years was in average $ 500 billion US Dollar, while , the 1.5 millions of Gamo people disprivileged. The Gamo People have not yet benefitted anything from such huge capital income of the national economy and now they are left to under extreme poverty, illiterate/not educated, food in secured, homeless, physically weak, voiceless and trapped under high poverty circle.
    Very recently, the on-shore natural forest of Lake Chamo is cut and removed by unskilled and greedy investors intentionally for the sake of farm investment by undermining the ecological benefits and with no any technological advancement and transformation for the local poor farmers. In principle, any investors have a capacity to develop its own irrigation access, but her only in Gamo those by name called investors but actually rent collectors are currently diverting irrigation water through un-concreted ditch from the poor Gamo farmers by forcefully and bribing the officials.
    These are a few from many, others like education, health, agriculture, industry and service sector are highly under developed. Therefore, the people of Gamo for a century forced to migrate, engage to do unskilled job in the country, and those remained in their home countries are pursuing the bitter life with no change for the millennium celebrated but EPRDF Dancing rather crying. That was a big historical mistake done by EPRDF and so that it requires a bitter struggle until the Gamo people liberate theme-selves from those who confiscated their mother-land, political and economic independences.


    • hawassa sidama September 14, 2012 at 7:56 am #

      Thank you for your comments. It is a sad reality that various nations in South Ethiopia who have population size greater than several sovereign independent countries in the world continue to be denied a basic right for regional self administration. According to the July 1st 2012 population estimate by the Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency (CSA), the Gamo Gofa people are the second largest in Southen Ethiopia after the Sidama people. The total population of Gamo Gofa is 1.8 million compared to Wolayita which has a total population of 1.7 million, Gurage (1.4 million), Hadiya (1.4 million) and Kaffa (1 million). Sidama has the total population of 3.4 million.

      As you rightly mentioned the economic contrbution of the people in the South to the Central Ethiopian government is huge. But we are denied opportunities to use these resources to develop our oun regions, to create jobs, provide basic economic and social services such as water, electricity, telecommunications, roads, railways, schools, univerisities, hospitals, and other essential services. This is primarily because we do not have the right to govern our regions by ourselves. We are forcefully lumped together with 45 -50 smaller ethnic groups.

      The Sidama people have been demanding regional self asdminisitration for decades now and particualry since the establishement of the fake SNNPR. The Gamo people will never develop until they are able to govern their own affairs by themsleves in their own separate region. Please send us your thoughts on the Gamo regional question and the need to dismantle the illegal SNNPR region to allow people like Sidama and Gamo to govern their own affiars in their regions. We will post your reaction on our blog. We look forward to receiving your reaction on this suggestion.

      • melese March 16, 2013 at 12:31 pm #

        YES WE CAN

  2. Afera September 29, 2012 at 10:42 pm #

    Now you SNNPR people should be proud of your new prim minster, I am proud!!!!. It has been long straggle though very gentle. I do not mean you don’t deserve but we all Ethiopian are responsible to appreciate the EPRDF for many reason. There are people feel sheet to hear this but part of it is fact. The fact that SNNPR became the leader of Ethiopia which were on two ethnic group for centuries. we will see who will be next.

  3. hawassa sidama March 17, 2013 at 4:06 pm #


  4. Chencha Gamo March 26, 2013 at 3:26 pm #

    yaa ,u ar right ,all the above statment is a reality ,we the
    GAMO people become the most disadvantaged despite all the natural resources and amazing irrigable farmland that could feed not only GAMO’S but the whole country. currently there appear to hv political strategy not hv strong gamo people unity ,by creating divisions among Gamo’s .so we hv to sruggle to save our people’s life. please let GAMO’S LET UNIT.

  5. temesgen May 9, 2013 at 8:45 am #

    currentily why wolayta wearing gamo cultural cloth ?why not prepare their own cloth ,not only this if they get better towns and related benefits simply they say that it is us why?

  6. Gelaneh Degifie June 28, 2013 at 7:30 am #

    We are on the side of this straggle. We are waiting for searching the position. Then we straggle to Rebuild that of migrated and separated Gamo People for the development of Gamo Gofa.

  7. temesgen June 30, 2013 at 7:55 am #

    gamo up to know opresed by pDRE Administration.This shows that geverment do not give any attention to gamo peoples ,majority of gamo peoples where not get infrustracture still .The gevernining system is only for wolayita gamo is not considered as atirbe in ethiopia not only this our cultural cloths was stolen by wolayta this was done by hailemariam geverment his adiminstration facilitates methods to oppires gamo,,,,,,,,,,,,,by temesgen seid from chencha currently gradute student in debre markos university of economics departement and campas sDP CURRENT head of south STUDENTS we have about1200 south student members i will strogly opose geverment opiration of gamo tribes in south……by a am willing to commincate with you for long time….by by

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